Every year, the Italian Scoliosis Study Group selects the best published papers on conservative spine treatment from the global scientific literature.
Here is the abstract from one of these papers.
Intra-and inter-rater reliabilities and differences of kyphotic angle measurements on ultrasound images versus radiographs for children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a preliminary study
Tehzeeb Sayed, Mahdieh Khodaei, Doug Hill, Edmond Lou
Spine Deform. 2022 Jan 29.PMID: 35091992 doi: 10.1007/s43390-021-00466-5
Purpose: To develop a new method based on 3D ultrasound information to measure the kyphotic angle (KA) on ultrasound (US) images in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and to evaluate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities and accuracy of the US measurements.
Methods: Twenty subjects with AIS (17F, 3 M, aged 13.7 ± 2.2 years old) were recruited. One 20 + years experienced rater (R3) measured the KA on radiographs twice using the Cobb method. Two raters (R1, R2), both have at least 1-year experience measured US images twice using the new spinous processes method. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1]) of the intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of US KA measurements were calculated. An equation based on US KA measurements to calculate the radiographic KA was generated.
Results: The intra-rater reliability ICC[2,1] (R3) of the X-ray measurement was 0.92 and US KA measurements for R1 and R2 were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The inter-rater reliability ICC[2,1] for R1 versus R2 were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively. The mean absolute differences (MAD) of US versus radiography measurements were 4.2 ± 3.0° (R1 vs R3) and 5.0 ± 4.1° (R2 vs R3), respectively. The radiographic equivalent KA = 0.82 × US KA – 5.6°. When using this equation, the overall MAD between US and radiographic KA was 2.9 ± 1.6°.
Conclusions: The ultrasound spinous process method was reliable to measure the KA. Although there was a systematic bias on the US measurements, after the correction, the MAD of the US and radiographic KA was 2.9 ± 1.6°. Using US allows clinicians to monitor KA without exposing children to ionizing radiation.
Keywords: Accuracy; Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Kyphotic Angle; Reliability; Ultrasound.